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Researched & written by Judith C. Ware
2002, Updated March 2008
Judy C. Ware

During the Civil War, one of the true “hotspots” of the fighting occurred in the heart of the Shenandoah Valley. This area of the country (around Winchester and Berryville) “served the Confederacy as a vital source of food and forage. Beyond that, geography made it an important military highway, a great ‘covered way’ for the Southern forces. In 1862 the area was the scene of Jackson’s great campaign, and in 1864 Yankee General Philip Sheridan was ordered to put the South’s granary to the torch; leading to great desolation in this area.” (ref. 277)

As a point of interest, the battle of Berryville was the last engagement Jubal Early had in Clarke County.

The following are some of the Confederate officers active in the area:

*CSA = Confederate States of America

JohnMosbySmall.gif (3775 bytes)CSA - Capt. John Singleton Mosby. He served as a scout for Jeb Stuart & led numerous raids in the valley against the Union troops. His men helped put out the fire at Springfield and retaliated against the Yankees for the burning of homes in the Valley.
WilliamChapmanSmall.gif (4210 bytes)CSA – Capt. William Chapman
blank.jpg (8568 bytes)CSA – Lt. J.S. Russell
RobertELeeSmall.gif (3751 bytes)CSA – Gen. Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Confederate forces. He stopped with his troops to worship at Grace Episcopal Church in Berryville right before the battle at Gettysburg. He also had written correspondence with Josiah Ware. Lee's daughter was friends with both of Josiah's daughters.
FitzhughLeeSmall.gif (4105 bytes)CSA – Gen. Fitzhugh Lee. He was the nephew of Robert E. Lee
JoeJohnsonSmall.gif (4255 bytes)CSA – Gen. Joe Johnston
JubalEarlySmall.gif (3808 bytes)CSA – Gen. Jubal Early. He defeated by Sheridan at Winchester, Fisher's Hill & Cedar Creek. Josiah's son, Charles Alexander Ware, served with him.
JohnBreckinridgeSmall.gif (4075 bytes)CSA – Gen. John Breckenridge served as Confederate Secretary of War after Feb. 1865
TurnerAshbySmall.gif (4183 bytes)CSA – Gen. Turner Ashby. He fought at Winchester & during the Valley Campaign. General Ashby asked Josiah Ware to take one of his regiments, but he died before it could be accomplished. 
WilliamJonesSmall.gif (3987 bytes)CSA – Gen. William Jones. Josiah said he was referred to as the "Flying General" in Winchester after he fell back to Newmarket instead of engaging with General Geary when he raided the area.
APHillSmall.gif (3994 bytes)CSA – Gen. A.P. Hill. He fought with Jackson & helped ward off a defeat for Lee at Sharpsburg. Josiah wrote of Hill's story about a French Col. and a farmer's horse, and he criticized Hill's actions concerning runaway slaves. He also described the condition of the Confederate soldiers in Hill's army when they were encamped at Springfield. General Ambrose Hill shared meals with Josiah and spoke with him often about the ongoing battles.
JohnGreggSmall.gif (4260 bytes)CSA – Gen. John Gregg. Josiah shared meals with Gen. Gregg while his division was encamped at Springfield with Gen. A.P. Hill.
BenjaminHugerSmall.gif (3769 bytes)CSA – Gen. Benjamin Huger. Josiah discussed how disappointed Lee was that Gen. Huger and Gen. Magruder did not get to their destination in time to capture McClellen.
JohnMagruderSmall.gif (4295 bytes)CSA – Gen. John Magruder. He bluffed the Union troops into believing he had more men than he actually did.
AllenThomasSmall.gif (4519 bytes)CSA – Gen. Allen Thomas. He was part of the encampment on Springfield with General A.P. Hill. Josiah wrote about getting to know him.
JohnMcCauslandSmall.gif (3960 bytes)CSA – Gen. John McCausland. He led a Calvary brigade in the Shenandoah.
StonewallJacksonSmall.gif (3756 bytes)CSA - Gen. Stonewall Jackson. He took command of the Confederate forces in the Shenandoah Valley - one of Lee's top officers. Josiah writes of his victory over the Yankees at the river crossing in Shepherdstown. Josiah's son, Charles Alexander Ware, served with Jackson at Harper's Ferry. He was in the cavalry at the time, but later transferred to the Medical Corps.
JebStuartSmall.gif (4246 bytes)CSA - Gen. Jeb Stuart. Head of the cavalry in the army of Northern Virginia - a major scout for Gen. Lee and known for his flamboyancy. Josiah mentions him dancing with the girls and almost getting caught by the Yankees, and also his making a raid into Pennslyvania to get horses. Josiah's son, Charles Alexander Ware, served in J.E.B. Stuart's Cavalry, and one of Stuart's favorite horses that he rode in the war was actually a gift from Josiah.
RichardEwellSmall.gif (3837 bytes)CSA - Gen. Richard S. Ewell. He won victories at Winchester. Josiah writes of him capturing some Yankee pickets. Charles Alexander Ware participated in several campaigns with Gen. Ewell.
JamesArcherSmall.gif (4090 bytes)CSA - Gen. James Jay Archer. He was part of the encampment on Josiah's land - with General A.P. Hill. Josiah wrote of sharing meals with him.
LunsfordLomaxSmall.gif (3490 bytes)CSA - Gen. Lunsford Lomax. Josiah's son, Charles Alexander Ware, served as a surgeon in Lomax's Cavalry Division. (see bio of CA WARE)
JohnImbodenSmall.gif (3969 bytes)CSA - Gen. John Imboden. Dr. Charles Alexander Ware served as Head Surgeon for Gen. Imboden's Corps.
JamesLongstreetSmall.gif (4028 bytes)CSA - Gen. James Longstreet. Both Lee and Longstreet stopped off to worship at Grace Episcopal Church in Berryville, Virginia before going to Gettysburg.

These Union officers were also in the area:

*USA = United States of America

PhilipSheridanSmall.gif (3156 bytes)USA – Gen. Philip Sheridan. He followed the orders given by Grant to turn the Shenandoah Valley into a "barren waste" - fought against Jubal Early at Cedar Creek, Fisher's Hill, & Winchester.
GeorgeCusterSmall.gif (3560 bytes)USA – Gen. George Custer. He ordered retaliation for Mosby's raids by burning homes in the Shenandoah Valley.
JosephHookerSmall.gif (3750 bytes)USA – Gen. Joseph Hooker. In charge of major offensives against Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
WesleyMerrittSmall.gif (3843 bytes)USA – Gen. Wesley Merritt. He was part of a Union encampment on Josiah Ware's land. He actually made his headquarters at Springfield and stayed in one of the guest rooms. In gratitude for the hospitality shown him, he gave assurance that Springfield would not be harmed by Union forces.
DavidHunterSmall.gif (3990 bytes)USA – Gen. David Hunter. It was under the command of Gen. Hunter that Wright's 6th Corps descended upon Springfield and stripped it clean of all they could. Edmonia Ware (wife of Josiah) wrote about him in her letter to her daughter, Elizabeth, and called him the "infamous Hunter." Her letter gives a heart-wrenching view of the circumstances - (see Edmonia's letter to Elizabeth)
RobertMilroySmall.gif (3940 bytes)USA – Gen. Robert Milroy. Josiah wrote about him quite a bit in his letter to his son, James. He wrote that Gen. Milroy was a "bad man" and had posted placards in Winchester to incite the negroes in the area.
NathanielBanksSmall.gif (3918 bytes)USA – Gen. Nathaniel Banks. He led the V Corps during The Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Josiah wrote of his hasty retreat out of Front Royal when surprised by Generals Ewell & Jackson. He also wrote of how Gen. Banks and his men looted the countryside. Josiah personally went to General Bank's headquarters in Middletown to demand restitution for stolen property. Banks actually complied with his request, but things were still confiscated when Pope's orders superseded Banks. There are also letters written between Gen. Banks and Josiah.
JohnFremontSmall.gif (3762 bytes)USA – Gen. John Charles Fremont. He failed to stop Stonewall Jackson in his Shenandoah campaign & was relieved of his command for refusing to serve under General Pope.
FranzSigelSmall.gif (3711 bytes)USA – Gen. Franz Sigel. He held a series of senior commands in the Shenandoah Valley – Josiah appealed to him for the return of his cattle but was never granted a discussion with him.
JohnPopeSmall.gif (3707 bytes)USA – Gen. John Pope. He was the replacement for General McClellan as the senior commander in the Virginia theater – he was later relieved of command by Lincoln. Josiah writes of how Pope kept a pair of handcuffs he hoped to use on Jackson but never got the chance. General Pope barely escaped being captured by the unit Dr. Charles Ware was with.
IrvinMcDowellSmall.gif (4187 bytes)USA – Gen. Irvin McDowell. He became III Corp Commander under General Pope. Josiah wrote how General McDowell was coming from Fredricksburg and Gen. Milroy was coming from western Virginia on their march to meet at Strasburg.
JuliusStahelSmall.gif (3765 bytes)USA – Gen. Julius Stahel. Josiah wrote that he was a Dutchman (commanding the Yankee cavalry) who came up from Fairfax County to make a raid on them. He wrote of how Gen. Stahel opened his fences & drove off all his cattle, and how he (Josiah) actually went to Stahel's headquarters to ask for his property back.
GeorgeMcClellanSmall.gif (3772 bytes)USA – Gen. George McClellan. He was head of the Union army before Grant. President Lincoln was so distressed with McClellan's inability to take action and get results, that he finally relieved him of duty and gave the position of leadership to General Grant. Josiah wrote about how the Confederates met Gen. McClellan at Antietam and whipped the Yankees back (at a terrible loss).
DavidAllenRussellSmall.gif (4034 bytes)USA – Gen. David Allen Russell. He was killed at battle of Winchester, 1864.
AmbroseBurnsideSmall.gif (3320 bytes)USA - Gen. Ambrose Burnside. Josiah wrote his son (James Alexander Ware) about how the Yankees wanted to "swap Burnside for Jackson because he (Burnside) was 'such a damned fool'" & even the Yankees admired General Stonewall Jackson.
JohnGearySmall.gif (4277 bytes)USA - Gen. John Geary. Josiah referred to him as a "bad man" and his men as "ruffians" in the town of Warrenton. He also mentioned a raid that Gen. Geary made through Berryville and Winchester.
HoratioWrightSmall.gif (3765 bytes)USA - Gen. Horatio Wright. He was leader of the infamous 6th Corps that Edmonia Ware (Josiah's wife) wrote about in her letter. She described them as "pouring down on them like a pack of thieves."
LouisBlenkerSmall.gif (4202 bytes)USA - Gen. Louis Blenker. Josiah mentioned in his letter how General Blenker's Union forces tried to cross a river in the area. The river was so high that many of the men (75 of them) were drowned.
JohnHatchSmall.gif (3445 bytes)USA - Gen. John P. Hatch. General Hatch was Chief of Cavalry during one of the Shenandoah campaigns. Josiah carried a letter from him to Maj. Perkins concerning his stolen goods & how to get them back.

Several of the battles that occurred around the area where Josiah lived were those fought at Millwood, Berryville, Winchester, Cedar Creek (20 miles south of Winchester), Fisher’s Hill, and New Market.


Some of the battles of Stonewall Jackson’s Brigade were:

Winchester May 25, 1862

Winchester June 14th and 15th, 1863

Snicker’s Ferry July 18, 1864

Winchester July 24, 1864

Winchester August 18th, 1864

Winchester Sept. 19, 1864

***These places were mentioned in Josiah’s letter and are highlighted and numbered on the maps that are attached to this document. BattlefieldMapsOfVirginia.jpg (123746 bytes)

  1. Hagerstown
  2. Williamsport
  3. Martinsburg
  4. Shepherdstown
  5. Antietam
  6. Harper’s Ferry
  7. Charlestown
  8. Leesburg
  9. Berryville
  10. WinchesterVirginiaMap.jpg (110115 bytes)
  11. Middletown
  12. Strasburg
  13. Front Royal
  14. New market
  15. Cool Spring
  16. Cedar Creek
  17. Fisher’s Hill ShenandoahValley.jpg (130776 bytes)
  18. Warrenton
  19. Staunton 
  20. Frederick 
  21. Gordonsville
  22. Richmond
  23. Fredericksburg

** The number on the list matches the number on the maps.

Click on map images to see full-size maps.

Reference 277 Map & reference (quote) The Civil War, narrative by Bruce Catton, American Heritage/Bonanza Books New York, by the Editors of American Heritage, page 152

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Placement of family photographs and visual graphics accompanying this piece are the fine work of John Reagan who has been an invaluable help in setting up a website for me entitled Ware Genealogy at I will forever be grateful for his expertise and kindness.

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